Style in fine arts developing in the 11th-12th centuries. in Europe and the Middle East subordinated to the Roman Church (crusade); it was almost exclusively sacred art. Romanesque churches were massive buildings with thick walls, simple geometric forms and clear divisions into elements; a semicircular arch was commonly used.
Style in mature and late medieval art, lasting from the mid-12th century. until the beginning of the 16th century. Its architecture was characterized by the consistent use of the skeleton system, which they consisted of: rib vault, buttresses and supporting arches and a sharp hatch in the structure and decoration, which allowed for the construction of very tall buildings with reduced main walls, replaced by large windows. Religious themes prevailed in the visual arts; Artistic craftsmanship has achieved an extremely high level.
The style in fine arts prevailing in European countries in the 15th and 16th centuries., creatively referring to the Greek and Roman antiquities. In architecture, many spatial solutions were adopted (central structures covered with a dome), elements of ancient architecture and ornaments (architectural cleanup, composition based on the triumphal arch, decorative motifs). Research into perspective and proportion played an important role in the development of a new direction in plays, mechanics of movement and anatomy of the human body – This initiated a direction marked by a turn towards nature, based on realistic observation. It was dominated by mythological and religious themes, often a religious topic was only a pretext for presenting contemporary life; the portrait also developed.
Style in European art, which develops more or less over the years 1520-1600. This trend was characteristic especially for Italian art and was associated with the emergence of trends radically different from the harmonious ideal of the Renaissance, recommending creation without a natural pattern, based on your imagination. In the Netherlands, the art of this period was distinguished by its distinctiveness and great variety.
The Italian patterns of late Renaissance art and mannerism were by no means directly adopted, in combination with late-gothic traditions, they often became just a starting point for creating completely new forms, both in architecture, sculpture, painting, as well as arts and crafts. Dutch mannerism was a decorative trend, in the case of architecture, changing the external appearance of buildings while maintaining the late gothic structure; forms of this decoration, disseminated by graphic patterns of ornaments and architectural orders, they were used primarily by craftsmen.
The style in visual arts originated in Italy (Rome) at the end of the 16th century; lasted until the mid-18th century. Baroque architecture is characterized by monumentalism, picturesqueness, richness of decorations and ornamental forms. Contrasting effects are achieved, for example, by curving the facade, interruption of cornices, etc.; the sculpture was characterized by pathos, movement, the theatricality of the gesture, counterpost systems, often, especially in religious matters, striving to express a strong expression of states of ecstasy. Religious painting was dominated by mystical-symbolic and martyrdom themes, in secular painting – mythological scenes, allegorical, historical and portrait, there was also a landscape, still life and genre themes.
Style in European art, developing from 1720 do 1780 r., often considered the last phase of the baroque. Rococo was most fully expressed in the architecture of the interiors of palaces and park pavilions (striving for intimacy and elegance, divisions of walls into fields in fancy frames, stucco, mirrors, gilding etc.) and ornamentation with asymmetric arrangements, whimsically bent, with soft and flowing lines (m.in. rocaille shell themes), and especially in arts and crafts – ceramic, weaving, meblarstwie, woodcarving – as well as painting and sculpture.
The classicizing trend appeared in the art of some countries as early as the 17th century. (mainly England and France); in the mid-18th century. a new classicism began to take shape (called neoclassicism). Factors, which influenced the formation of a new direction, there was an increased interest in ancient Greek and Roman art (m.in. following the discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum), the influence of the art of the mature Renaissance (especially the Palladia architecture) and the development of theory and art history. The architecture was influenced by antiquity and the Renaissance; central building plans were used, porticos, frontony, support triumphal, classic cleaning and architectural details.
Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Modern Style. Avant-garde artistic movement from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries., mainly covering interior design and applied arts, as well as the style of ornamentation produced by them. The characteristic features of Art Nouveau were the love of wavy and flowing lines, ornament with abstract forms with stylized plant and animal motifs, full of sophistication, free composition arrangements, most often asymmetric, decorativeness and planarity, linearism and subtle, bright colors.